# NEW PARADIGM IN PHYSICS

## NEW SCIENTIFIC THEORY

A new investigation carried out by the engineer and physicist Gabriel Barceló, and other Spanish scientists, analyzes the behavior of bodies with accelerations, and proposes new keys to better understand the mechanics of the universe, and to have a more real scientific cosmology. This research has been published through a treatise in two volumes, entitled: “**New paradigm in Physics**“

# NEW PARADIGM IN PHYSICS

## NEW SCIENTIFIC THEORY

The Universe is not, necessarily, in an unlimited expansion, but constantly rotates, in a stable and harmonious equilibrium, according to a new scientific theory that proposes new keys to better understand the mechanics of the universe and to have a more real cosmology.

The theory has been developed by the engineer and physicist Gabriel Barceló and a group of Spanish researchers, over the last forty years. Now it has come to light through a series of articles published in scientific journals and a treatise in two volumes: **NEW PARADIGM IN PHYSICS**. The hypotheses of this theory are based on new criteria on coupling speeds and rotational inertia.

The research analyzes the behavior of bodies with accelerations to better understand why we live in a world of nights and mornings, with twilights and sunrises. Its starting point is a new physical correlation between the orbiting of bodies and the movements of intrinsic rotation.

This correlation has given him a mathematical expression, and he has experimentally verified its accuracy throughout this investigation. After the experimental tests, the researchers have come to the conclusion that new general laws of behavior can be deduced, based on the analysis of the dynamic fields created.

### Insufficient laws

The investigation starts from the basis that the laws of dynamics currently accepted are insufficient to determine the behavior of the bodies that rotate. They have investigated inertial and non-inertial systems to better understand the response of rigid bodies subjected to non-coaxial rotations (which do not have the same axis) simultaneously.

**NEW COSMOS MODEL**

This research proposes a substantial change in the basic assumptions, or models, within the dominant theory of science that constitutes a **new paradigm in Physics**.

It suggests that by combining General Relativity with its dynamic proposals, it might be possible to define a model of the cosmos, which would possibly be more consistent with the observable universe.

**MENTALITY CHANGE**

Therefore, it is argued that a change of mentality in current Physics is necessary, which allows us to accept the true behavior of mobile phones subject to variations in speed in space.

The research goes into the field of Field Theory, which describes the set of mathematical principles and techniques that allow studying the dynamics and spatial distribution of physical fields, and proposes new hypotheses to explain the dynamic behavior of the systems that are subject to non-coaxial accelerations.

Applying the Field Theory to the dynamic magnitudes circumscribed to a body, the research has achieved a new conception of the coupling of these magnitudes, and the behavior of solid rigid bodies subjected to multiple simultaneous non-coaxial rotations.

The results of the investigation are coherent with Einstein’s theories on rotation, although they warn that the Theory of Relativity is born from a translational linear thought, to which later rotational concepts are added. The main author of this research, Gabriel Barceló, suggests, therefore, a revision of this rational development.

Nor does the research challenge Newton’s laws, since a conceptual structure of proven reliability has been developed with them. It proposes, on the other hand, a different and complementary mechanics to Classical Mechanics, specifically for systems accelerated by rotations.

### Trigonometric functions

This research has discovered that, at the moment in which a new non-coaxial rotation occurs on a body that already has intrinsic rotation, both the velocity and the acceleration of each particle of the body are trigonometric functions, albeit of a different nature: when one grows because it is sinusoidal, the other decreases because it is cosinoidal, and when one is canceled, the other takes its maximum value.

This instantaneous variation creates an inhomogeneous distribution of acceleration, that is what motivates the appearance of effective inertial forces, that manifest as dynamic **moment of interaction**. A concept that transcends the classic gyroscopic moment, to incorporate this notion into the conceptual structure of a new coherent rotational dynamics.

This new coherent rotational dynamics is formulated mathematically, and develops a qualitative model to store and structure the mechanical knowledge of the rigid solid, and also suggests new rotational and dynamic concepts, that mark the difference between the dynamics of inertial systems, with the dynamics of accelerated systems not inertial.

### Theory of Dynamic Interactions

These new concepts illuminate the Theory of Dynamic Interactions (TDI), a new dynamic model for non-inertial systems with axial symmetry, which is based on the principles of conservation of measurable quantities: the notion of quantity, total mass and total energy.

This Theory deduces a general equation of motion for bodies endowed with angular momentum, when subjected to successive non-coaxial pairs, which he calls the “general equation of motion of non-inertial systems with axial symmetry”.

This Theory conceives a universe in rotation and in constant equilibrium, in which, a moment or a pair of forces will generate, while acting, a permanent orbiting movement, in a closed and flat trajectory.

This universe also maintains constant its initial intrinsic rotation, thus generating a universe that could constantly rotate in stable dynamic equilibrium, in harmony and not in unlimited expansion.

It is a new conception of celestial mechanics based on dynamic non-inertial hypothesis for bodies accelerated by rotations, which proposes a law of simultaneity of orbit and rotation.

From this conception emerges a universe in constant and enduring dynamic equilibrium in rotation, due to the real behavior of matter when their bodies are endowed with intrinsic rotation. This is the balance that the human being has perceived when observing the celestial dome for millennia.

### Scientific applications

The new theory has other cosmological implications. Starting from the basis that, according to the General Theory of Relativity, the mass of the Earth deforms the space-time in its environment, the Moon must also make a rolling movement on the curved surface of space-time deformed by the Earth, generating a new rotation of the satellite that would not be coaxial with the intrinsic rotation that already has, according to this investigation.

In this case, the dynamic interactions predicted by the TDI would be generated, originating the orbit of the closed and flat Moon that we observe. In this way, the behavior of the celestial bodies is justified, according to the criteria of Relativity, without needing additional pairs or forces.

The Theory of Dynamic Interactions suggests, therefore, that the Theory of Relativity should be revised, and raises doubts about an undefined generalization of the Einstein Principle of Equivalence.

The TDI proposes a profound revision of certain concepts of astrophysics, and proposes a specific analysis of the fascinating history of human knowledge of the universe, taking into account their working hypotheses.

Therefore, he proposes to extend the analysis of the Theory of Relativity with the new dynamic hypotheses of accelerated non-inertial systems of the TDI.

In this same field, the TDI can justify, in the same way, Kepler’s Laws. According to the second, all planets move at a constant areolar velocity. In the case of elliptical orbit, according to the TDI, it would be due to a variation of the orbiting speed, which is consistent with the greater deformation of space-time in the vicinity of the central mass.

The new scientific theory can also revolutionize the understanding of the nature of the atomic structure, since the dynamic reactions analyzed can affect the variation of the energetic levels of the electron and, more particularly, the very concept of spin.

The TDI can also influence the concept of quantization of Planck radiation, and its constant, being understood in current physics as the least amount of energy that can be transmitted, since the new theory could be related to the referred notion of spin, and be explained with the help of the TID. It even proposes that this minimum value of the physical quantities can be justified by the value of the angular momentum of the atomic particles.

Through this model of dynamic interactions, one could even justify how a body in rotation can initiate an elliptical, circular or even helical trajectory, without the existence of a true central force. According to this dynamic model, the application of a pair of forces to a body with intrinsic rotation, generates a stable system, and in constant dynamic equilibrium.

This theory can also provide the explanation of the formation of rings, and in general of all the plane celestial systems in rotation, that we observe in our universe.

The dynamic model of the TDI justifies finally a flat image of the universe in which galaxies and systems also tend to develop in flat structures. A possible explanation to the fact that the universe is constituted by flat celestial systems: they have a flat structure, galaxies, solar systems such as ours, Saturn’s rings, the asteroid belt, also the Kuiper belt or the Dispersed Disk.

### Technological applications

The application of these dynamic hypotheses to astrophysics, astronautics and other fields of physics and technology will possibly allow new and stimulating advances in research.

The result of this project is the conception of an innovative dynamic theory, which is specifically applicable to physical systems in rotation, and which has numerous and significant scientific and technological applications.

This theory can also have numerous technological applications in the control of movement, in astronautics, in nuclear fusion plants or to interpret climatological phenomena with masses of fluids in rotation, such as typhoons or tornadoes.

With the aid of the Theory of Dynamic Interactions, a ship without a spade rudder, with energy saving, or a spaceship could be governed. This theory can also be applied in the confinement of plasma in nuclear fusion reactors.

Finally, this research presents a special interest to consider in Physics the exploration of accelerated systems in general, and highlights the need to develop scientific research projects for the evaluation and analysis of their postulates, as well as technological projects based on these hypotheses.

### New paradigm

Newton proposed a model for the planetary orbit that only has a mathematical solution when it is limited to two point bodies. It is not possible to calculate its exact mathematical solution for n bodies, as would be the case of the solar system, or even for the assumption of three celestial bodies, for example, the Sun, the Earth and the Moon.

Einstein proposed a more general theory, such as the theory of general relativity, which incorporates a more adequate description of the gravitational field. In this theory, the presence of a mass, curves space-time, in which the planetary orbits result from the geometry of that space-time curved by the Sun. This theory could explain unjustified facts in Newton’s model, such as the advance of the perihelion of the planet Mercury.

The theory proposed by the new research is fully consistent with the theory of general relativity, and with Kepler’s laws, but it allows to justify other characteristics of the behavior of the celestial bodies, not foreseen in the other two models, such as the Dynamic equilibrium of the universe, the plane celestial systems or the rings of Saturn.

Therefore, Barceló’s proposal complements the theory of general relativity, and confirms that the Newtonian model was at the time a useful, but conceptually erroneous, calculation tool.

This new research raises consequently a substantial change in the basic assumptions, or models, within the dominant theory of science, which constitutes a new paradigm in Physics, which had not been enunciated to date.

This research suggests that by combining General Relativity with its dynamic proposals, a model of the cosmos could be defined, which would possibly be more coherent with the observable universe.

For this reason, they argue that a change of mentality in current Physics is necessary, which allows us to accept the true behavior of mobiles subject to variations in its speed in space.

It would be a mental transformation similar and equivalent to that which occurred in our collective perception when viewing, first the astronauts, and then the whole world society, the Earth from space.

By noticing its environmental and ecological fragility, and possibly also, after the Chernobyl disaster, the arms race was probably quieted, in the face of fear that the human race might disappear, the victim of its own technological and weapons-related successes.

For the authors of this research, it does not seem logical that nature has to be explained with different structures of knowledge not related to each other: Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Theory of Relativity, or even Wave Mechanics.

Rather, they consider that this situation reflects an attempt to know our environment with different approaches, each one obtaining its own successes, but without there being unique criteria and results.

The behavior of nature must, logically, respond to a single model, whose description must be unique, so they must find bridges or links between these structures of mechanical knowledge. The TDI, the researchers consider, is one of those bridges.

### References

**NEW PARADIGM IN PHYSICS: THEORY OF DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS. (Volume I)**. ISBN-13:*978-84-617-7316-9***NEW PARADIGM IN PHYSICS: ASSUMPTIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY OF DYNAMIC INTERACTIONS. (Volume II)**. ISBN-13:*978-84-697-9518-7*